Micronutriments et infections virales tropicales: un aspect du complexe
pathogene en medecine tropicale. [Micronutrients and tropical viral infections:
one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine]
Med Trop (Mars) 1999;59(4 Pt 2):442-8 (ISSN: 0025-682X)
Malvy D Centre Rene Labusquiere/INSERM 330, Universite Victor
Segalen Bordeaux 2, France. firstname.lastname@example.org.
In tropical zones, uncertain living conditions, inadequate food intake,
and poor medical facilities enhance unnecessary morbidity and mortality
especially involving infants and young children. In addition to protein-caloric
malnutrition, deficiencies in essential micronutrients have a specific
health impact. Such deficiencies can be the direct cause of disease such
as vitamin A deficiency and blindness or have a promoting effect by compromising
immune status and increasing susceptibility to and severity of infectious
diseases especially of viral origin. The promoting effect of micronutrient
deficiency plays a significant role in measles, rotavirus-related diarrhea,
and, to a certain extent, progression of HIV infection. Several examples
are described to illustrate the relationship between tropical viral infection
and micronutrients including vitamin A, selenium, and various other antioxidants.
These examples highlight the effect of infectious disease on micronutritional
status (vitamin A and measles) and the need to develop reliable, practical
tools to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of dietary supplementation.
In any case, improving living conditions and health programs such as the
Expanded Vaccination Program are required and illustrate a transverse
approach for prevention of infectious and non-infectious tropical disease.
The relationship between micronutrients and infection is only one aspect
of the multifactorial reality that must be dealt with in tropical medicine.